Slovioski - expansion and amplification of the universal simplified Slavic oriented constructed language called Slovio.

Origins

The authors' original intention was to provide a more "Slavic" sounding and acting language than Slovio - especially for Slavic speaking individuals, who are inherently more familiar with "declensions" and "conjugations" that do not exist in the more simplified SLOVIO structure. Slovioski was created from the efforts of Michal Borovička of Slovakia, Andrej Moraczewski of Russia and Steeven Radzikowski from the USA. Their efforts would not exist without the work of Marek Hucko creator of Slovio.

Dictionary and Grammar

Slovioski uses its own dictionary, which was originally based upon the Slovio dictionary. However, over time, Slovioski has established its own vocabulary, based upon word forms that are generally common to all of the Slavic languages. The online dictionary was created and is maintained by Milovan Gal of Osijek, Croatia. Slovioski also utilizes certain vocabulary from another "constructed" Slavic language - called "Slovianski".

The grammar of Slovioski reflects the more traditional grammar of all natural Slavic languages - including verb conjugations and a simplified declension of nouns to allow for a more flexible Slavic sentence structure.

ALPHABET

See the Slovioski Alphabet

There is no set way for pronouncing vowels - for example, the letter "e" - may be pronounced either like the "e" in the English word "bed" or like the "ye" in the English word "yet"; similarly, the letter "i" may represent sounds of various different letters that approximate the "i" in other Slavic languages - Russian and Ukrainian being notable examples of various "i" sounds or symbols: и, й, і, ы . The pronunciation is the choice of the speaker.

LETTER ALTERNATIVES:

Letter "J" versus "I" - these letters are sometimes interchangeable in Slovioski. This is a decision of the writer:

Example:

  • "Slovianskij" or "Slovjanskij"


cx = cz = č ( = c // in non-confusing cases ) sx = sz = š ( = s // in non-confusing cases ) zx = zs = ž ( = z // in non-confusing cases )

NOUNS (NOMINATIVE CASE)

Singular

The singular forms for nouns in SLOVIOSKI end as they appear in the SLOVIO, SLOVIOSKI and SLOVIANSKI dictionaries - HOWEVER - a noun may always be modified to the speaker's/ writer's preference for establishing such things as "gender" - presumably in a "more Slavic" form:
EXAMPLE:
  • žen to žena
  • jazika to jazik

Plural

Plural for ALL nouns is formed by adding: "-i"
EXCEPTIONS:
(1) if a noun ends in a vowel other than "i", “-i” replaces the last vowel
(2) if the word ends with "ia" or "ie", the plural can be either "i" or "ii".
  • "okno" > "okni" - window(s)
  • "pismo" > "pismi" - writing(s) or letter(s)
  • "žena" > "ženi" - woman / women
  • "historia" > "histori or "historii" - history
(3) Slavic Traditional Word Modification:
  • "pes" - dog
  • "pesi" - dogs
  • "psi" - dogs - (traditional)

DATIVE CASE & LOCATIVE (aka "Prepositional") CASE

  • -u (singular)
  • -um or -im (plural)

NOTE: if a preposition is used, the Objective Case Ending is OPTIONAL

EXAMPLES:

We are going to Zagreb

  • Mi ideme do Zagrebu
  • Mi ideme do Zagreb

I gave the book to Andrej

  • Ja podal kniga Andreju
  • Ja podal Andreju kniga
  • Ja podal kniga do Andrej
  • Ja podal kniga do Andreju

Alternative LOCATIVE CASE

A possible alternative for the LOCATIVE CASE is:
  • -e (singular)
  • -ah or -eh (plural)

EXAMPLES:

  • na kriše
  • on the roof
  • v biblioteke
  • in the library

ACCUSATIVE CASE

The Accusative Case in SLOVIOSKI is the same as the NOMINATIVE CASE:
(the "noun" is the direct object of the "verb")

  • Jan vidi stol
  • Jan sees the/a table
  • Michal zakritil okno
  • Michal closed the window
  • Michal okni zakritil
  • Michal zakritil okni
  • Michal closed the windows
  • Jan napisal dopis prijatelu.
  • Jan wrote a letter to a friend
  • Michal podal kniga Janu
  • Michal gave the book to Jan
  • Michal podal knigi detum
  • Michal podal knigi do deti
  • Michal gave the books to the children

NOTE: in many instances, a native Slavic Speaker will use the Genitive Case instead of the Nominative Case for direct object nouns, when they are "animated nouns" (a "man," a "sailor") - as well as for certain other nouns. This is because most of the natural Slavic Languages have "exceptions" to the use of the Nominative for the Accusative Case

EXAMPLES:

  • Michal uvidel Jana - instead of - Michal uvidel Jan
  • Michal saw John
  • Michal uvidel korabnikov - instead of - Michal uvidel korabniki
  • Michal saw the sailors

GENITIVE (aka "Possessive" or "of") CASE

The Genitive Case is the "Possessive" or "of" case in that it is used to express various meanings of "of" in noun-to-noun relations, including most importantly the notion of possession broadly speaking. The Genitive Case may also indicate various "relationships" other than possession.
The Genitive Case is formed for all genders of nouns by the following endings:
  • "-a" (singular) .........An alternative for the genitive feminine case is to add the letter "-f " to the ending letter "a" > "-af "
  • "-ov" (plural)
in the following manners:
  • Masculine nouns: by adding the "-a" ending to the masculine noun:
  • muž > muža
  • Feminine nouns: by retaining its existing "-a" ending:
  • žena > žena or > ženaf
  • Neuter nouns: by dropping its existing "-o" ending and adding the "-a" ending:
  • mesto > mesta

EXAMPLES:

  • Part or Component of:
  • steni doma
  • walls of the house
  • ostrie noža
  • blade of the knife
  • konec filma
  • end of the film
{ more examples to follow }

INSTRUMENTAL CASE

"-em" (singular )
alternative ending: "-om"
"-ami" (plural)

VOCATIVE CASE

"-e" (singular ) - alternative endings: "-o"
or "-u"
"-ove" (plural)

However, "User's Choice" is also optional for both singular and plural.

EXAMPLES:

  • Obrene! Što ti delaš? - Obren! What are you doing?
  • Jovano! Dokud ti ideš? - JoVana! Where are you going?

ADJECTIVES

OPTION I - NO DECLENSION > "-JU" & "-IH" - UNIVERSAL ADJECTIVE ENDINGS

  • "-ju" (universal genderless - singular) > dobrju - & "-ih" (universal genderless - plural) > dobrih


OPTION II - SIMPLE DECLENSION > "-IJ -JA -JO -JE"

Used for either all declensions or just Nominative and Accusative, based upon gender of NOUN

  • "-ij" (masculine) dobrij
  • "-ja" (feminine) dobrja
  • "-jo" (neuter) dobrjo
  • "-je" (plural – genderless) dobrje

Added as a suffix to words, subject to the follow possible rules:

When an adjective is derived from a noun, one of three suffixes: "-n" "-ov-" or "-sk" usually must be added to the root noun,
followed by the appropriate regular adjective ending: "-ij" > "-ja" > "-jo" > "-je"

1. An "-n-" is used for nouns ending in "-a", replacing that letter; or may be added to a noun when the adjective is used in the sense of "pertaining to something"; or if needed for better Slavic enunciation.

Examples:

"last" = "posled" > "last exit" > poslednij izhod
"blood" = "krev" > "blood pressure" > krevnij gnet
2. An "-ov-" is used when the adjective is intended to express "having the characteristics of" or if needed for better Slavic enunciation.

Examples:

"atom" > "atomic" = atomovja bomba > atomic bomb or atom bomb
"bank" = bankovij sčet > bank account
3. A "-sk-" is added to the root of a noun which is a nation, language, a geographical name or population or a person:
  • "-ski"
  • "-sk(ju)" - genderless
  • "-sk(ij)" - masculine
  • "-sk(ja)" - feminine
  • "-sk(jo)" - neuter
  • "-sk(je)" - plural (genderless)

Examples:

Ruskij Jazik - Russian language
Karpatskje Gori - Carpathian mountains


OPTION IIb - SIMPLE DECLENSION > "-JU and -IH"

Used for all other cases: Genitive, Dative, Locative, Instrumental

  • "-ju" (singular) - dobrju
  • "-ih" (plural) - dobrih


OPTION III - FULL DECLENSION

Mirrors most common declensions used in natural Slavic languages

Case Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter Universal All Universal
Nominative -ij -ja -jo -ju -je -ih
Genitive -ego or -eg -ej -ego or -eg -ju -ih -ih
Dative -emu -oj -emu -ju -im -ih
Accusative N or G* -ou N -ju N or G* -ih
Locative -em -ej -em -ju -ih -ih
Instrumental -im -om -im -ju -imi -ih
Vocative N or ** N or ** N or ** -ju N or ** -ih

* - Nominative is used for Inanimate subjects & Genitive for Masculine Animate subjects
** - Either Nominative may be used or the User's Choice for Vocative


POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES


This configuration may be subject to imminent change - due to conflict with regular adjective formations using the "-ov-ij" format
--Steevenusx 18:01, November 22, 2009 (UTC)

SIMPLE POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE (no gender or declension) = -voj
  • Ženavoj pes - the woman's dog - (1 woman) (1 dog)
  • Ženavoj psi - the woman's dogs - (1 woman) (2+ dogs)
  • Ženivoj psi - the women's dogs - (2+ woman) (2+ dogs)


SINGULAR:

  • -ovij - masculine
  • -ovja - feminine
  • -ovjo - neuter
  • -ovje - plural (genderless)

PLURAL:

  • -ovih

EXAMPLES:

Genderless:

  • Ženovju sin - the woman's son - (1 woman) (1 son)

Gender:

  • Ženovij sin - the woman's son - (1 woman) (1 son)
  • Ženovje sini - the woman's sons - (1 woman) (2+ sons)
  • Ženovij pes - the woman's dog - (1 woman) (1 dog)
  • Ženovje psi - the woman's dogs - (1 woman) (2+ dogs)
  • Ženovih pes - the women's dog - (2+ women) (1 daughter)
  • Ženovih psi - the women's dogs - (2+ women) (2+ dogs)
  • Mužovjo okno - the man's window - (1 man) (1 window)
  • Mužovje okni - the man's windows - (1 man) (2+ windows)
  • Mužovih okno - the men's window - (2+ men) (1 window)
  • Mužovih okni - the men's windows - (2+ men) (2+ windows)

___________________________

ADVERBS

Adverbs are genderless and may end in two forms:

"-uo" - dobruo
"-ue" - dobrue

Examples:

  • On jes velmuo dobrue
  • On jes velmue dobruo
= He is very good

PRONOUNS

  • Ja - me - mne
  • Ti - te - tobe, tebe
  • On - jeg - jego, njego, go, nim, jemu, njemu, mu
  • Ona - jej, njej, jom, njom
  • Ono - jego, njego, tego, go
  • To - tego, go, tom
  • Mi - nam - nami
  • Vi - vam - vami
  • Oni - im, ih, imi
  • seba - sobe, sebe
  • Reflexive: se

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:

moj, moja, mojo, moje - my
tvoj, tvoja, tvojo, tvoje - your (thy in "Old English")
jego - his, its
jej - hers
toj - its
naš - our
vaš - your
ih - their
svoj, svoja, svojo, svoje, svojih - one's own

DEFINITE PRONOUNS

VSE - ALL

Experimental Declension of "VSE"

Case Singular Plural
Masculine Feminine Neuter All
Nominative ves / vse vsa vse vse
Genitive vsego vsej vsego vseh
Dative vsemu vsoj vsemu vsem
Accusative N / G* vsu vso N / G*
Locative vsem vsej vsem vseh
Instrumental vsim vsej vsim vsemi

* - Nominative is used for Inanimate subjects & Genitive for Masculine Animate subjects


VERBS

  • govorit - to speak; to talk
  • govorivat - to be speaking; to be talking

PRESENT TENSE

Simple:

  • Ja govorit - I speak
  • Ti govorit - You speak
  • On, Ona, Ono govorit - He, She, It speaks
  • Mi govorit - We speak
  • Vi govorit - You speak
  • Oni govorit - They speak

Regular

  • Ja govorim - I speak, I talk
  • Ti govor - you speak
  • On, Ona, Ono govori - he, she, it speaks
  • Mi govorime - we speak
  • Vi govorite - you speak
  • Oni govorijut - they speak
_________________
  • Ja govorivam - I am speaking/talking
  • Ti govorivaš - you are speaking
  • On, Ona, Ono govoriva - he, she, it is speaking
  • Mi govorivame - we are speaking
  • Vi govorivate - you are speaking
  • Oni govorivajut - they are speaking

PAST TENSE

Simple:

  • bil, bila, bilo, bili govorit

Regular:

  • Ja govoril, govorila - I spoke
  • Ja govorival, govorivala - I was speaking
  • Ti govoril, govorila - You spoke
  • Ti govorival, govorivala - You were speaking
  • On govoril - He spoke
  • Ona govorila - She spoke
  • Ono govorilo - It spoke
  • On govorival - He was speaking
  • Ona govorivala - She was speaking
  • Ono govorivalo - It was speaking
  • Mi govorili - We spoke
  • Mi govorivali - We were speaking
  • Vi govorili - You spoke
  • Vi govorivali - You were speaking
  • Oni govorili - They spoke
  • Oni govorivali - They were speaking

FUTURE TENSE

  • Ja budem govorit - I will speak
  • Ja budem govorivat - I will be speaking
  • Ti budeš govorit - You will speak
  • Ti budeš govorivat - You will be speaking
  • On } Ona } Ono } bude govorit - He, She, It will speak
  • On } Ona } Ono } bude govorivat - He, She, It will be speaking
  • Mi budeme govorit - We will speak
  • Mi budeme govorivat - We will be speaking
  • Vi budete govorit - You will speak
  • Vi budete govorivat - You will be speaking
  • Oni budejut/budjut govorit - They will speak
  • Oni budejut/budjut govorivat - They will be speaking

CONDITIONAL TENSE

  • Ja bi govoril / govorila - I would speak
  • Ja bi govorival / govorivala - I would be speaking
  • Ti bi govoril / govorila - You would speak
  • Ti bi govorival / govorivala - You would be speaking
  • On } Ona } Ono bi govoril / govorila / govorilo - He / She / It would speak
  • On } Ona } Ono bi govorival / govorivala / govorivalo - He / She / It would be speaking
  • Mi bi govorili - We would speak
  • Mi bi govorivali - We would be speaking
  • Vi bi govorili - You would speak
  • Vi bi govorivali - You would be speaking
  • Oni bi govorili - They would speak
  • Oni bi govorivali - They would be speaking

IMPERATIVE TENSE

  • Govorij! - (You) Speak!
  • Govorijme! - Let’s Speak!
  • Govorijte! -(You) Speak!

PRESENT ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

Infinitive: "-t" + "cij" "cja" "cjo" "cje"

  • govoritcju - genderless - speaking
  • govoritcij - masculine
  • govoritcja - feminine
  • govoritcjo - neuter
  • govoritcje - plural genderless

Examples:

  • govoritcja žena - the speaking woman
  • govoritcje ženi - the speaking women
  • osoba, ktorja sidi na divanu - the person who is sitting on the couch
  • osoba siditcja na divanu - the person sitting on the couch
  • mlodica, ktorja domovi u nas - the girl who lives with us
  • mlodica, domovitcja u nas - the girl living with us

PAST ACTIVE PARTICIPLE

OPTION I:

Past Tense: "-l + "cju" "cij" "cja" "cjo" "cje"
  • govorilcju - genderless - having spoken
  • govorilcij - masculine
  • govorilcja - feminine
  • govorilcjo - neuter
  • govorilcje - plural genderless

OPTION II:

Verb Root + "-všju" "-všij" "-všja" "-všjo" "-všje"
  • govorivšju - genderless
  • govorivšij - masculine
  • govorivšja - feminine
  • govorivšjo - neuter
  • govorivšje - plural

Examples:

  • govorilcja, ona pošla

OR

  • govorivšja, ona pošla
  • govorivšja, ona bil idet
  • govorivšja, idela
= having spoken, she went (left)

______

  • Igralcje futbal za 3 časi, muži načili pitit pivo

OR

  • Igravšje futbal za 3 časi, muži načili pitit pivo
= having played football for 3 hours, the men began to drink beer

______

  • Moj prijatel, ktorij prostuo zukoncil pracu/rabotu, otjehal {do, u} domu. (- Standard Sentence Construction )
= My friend, who just finished work, went (by vehicle) home.
  • Moj prijatel, zukoncilcij pracu/rabotu, otjehal {do, u} domu. (- Past Active Participle Option I Construction )
  • Moj prijatel, zukoncivšij pracu/rabotu, otjehal {do, u} domu. (- Past Active Participle Option II Construction )
= My friend, having just finished work, went (by vehicle) home.

PRESENT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE:

Infinitive: "-t" + "-nju" "-nij" "-nja" "-njo" "-njo"

  • Govoritnju - genderless - is spoken
  • Govoritnij - masculine
  • Govoritnja - feminine
  • Govoritnjo - neuter
  • Govoritnje - plural genderless - are spoken

Examples:

  • Polski govoritnij tut
= Polish is spoken here

_____

  • historia, ktorja opisaval v knigu
= the story, which is described in the book
  • historia, opisavatnja v knigu.
= the story described in the book

PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE

OPTION I:

bil -la -lo -li + Infinitive + "-nju" "-nij" "-nja" "-njo" "-nje"

  • bil govoritnju – genderless - was spoken
  • bil govoritnij - masculine
  • bila govoritnja - feminine
  • bilo govoritnjo - neuter
  • bili govoritnje - plural genderless - were spoken

PAST PASSIVE PARTICIPLE

OPTION II:

Masculine Past Tense: "-l" + "-nju" "-nij" "-nja" "-njo" "-nje"

  • govorilnju - genderless
  • govorilnij - masculine
  • govorilnja - feminine
  • govorilnjo - neuter
  • govorilnje - plural genderless

Examples:

  • instrukcii govorilnje
  • instrukcii bili govoritnje
= the instructions were spoken
  • govorilnje instrukci;
  • govorilnju instrukci
= spoken instructions
  • Imal popred sobe otzaginilnja gazeta.
  • Imal popred sobe otzaginilnju gazetu. (using objective case endings)
= He had in front of him an unfolded newspaper.
  • Dopis poslalnij tuden ot Moskve, zautro bude vo Sankt Peterburge.
= A letter sent today from Moscow will be in Saint Petersburg tomorrow.

VERBAL NOUN

A verbal noun is a conversion of a verb into noun.


In English, a verbal noun may be:

  • - a noun ending in "-ing" or "-ment"
  • - an infinitive, or
  • - some other noun derived from a verb

English Examples:

  • walking is good exercise
  • to err is human
  • We scored a win

In SLOVIOSKI a verbal noun is derived by adding an ending to the root of the verb:

Root + "-nie" or "-enie" or "-tie"


1. Generally, verbs which end in "-at" or "-et" form their verbal nouns by dropping the final "-t" and adding the ending "-nie":

  • pisat > pisa-t > pisanie = "writing"
  • jedat > jeda-t > jedanie = "eating" or "dining"
  • doltiagat > doltiaga-t > doltiaganie = "downloading"
  • razvijat > razvija-t > razvijanie = "developing" or "development"
  • pijet > pije-t > pijenie = "drinking"
  • živet > žive-t > živenie = "living"

2. Verbs which end in "-it" form their verbal nouns by dropping the final "t" and adding the ending "-enie" or "-tie":

  • žit > ži-t > žitie = "living"
  • bit > bi-t > bitie = "being"
  • razumit > razumi-t > razumienie = "understanding"
  • razumit > razumi-t > razumitie = "understanding"

3. Verbs which end in "-ut" form their verbal nouns by dropping the final "t" and adding the ending "-tie":

  • but > bu-t > butie = "being"
  • vernut > vernu-t > vernutie = "returning" or "return"
  • izčeznut > izčeznu-t > izčeznutie = "disappearing"
  • tonut > tonu-t > tonutie = "drowning"

NOTE: All verbal nouns are neuter in gender, and, if using Middle (Srednij) or Full (Polnij) Slovioski, decline as neuter nouns.


EXAMPLE OF VERBAL NOUN in SLOVIOSKI:

Publikij govorienie ne jes dla nesmelij človeki (Prostij Slovioski)
Publikjo govorienie ne jes dla nesmelih človekum (Srednij Slovioski)
Publikjo govorienie ne jese dla nesmelih človekov (Polnij Slovioski)
= Public speaking is not for shy people.


ADVERBIAL PARTICIPLES

Adverbial Participles are formed the same way in Slovioski as they are in Slovio:

Active Adverbial Participles:

Verb Root +
  • "-bsuo" - Future Active Adverbial Participle
  • "-tsuo" - Present Active Adverbial Participle
  • "-lsuo" - Past Active Adverbial Participle

EXAMPLES:

  • "Obedit - to dine; to have dinner or lunch
  • "Obedi- + ending
  • Obedibsuo on slušal muzik - Preparing to dine, he listened to music.
  • Obeditsuo on slušal muzik - While dining, he listened to music.
  • Obedilsuo on slušal muzik - Having dined, he listened to music.

Passive Adverbial Participles:

Verb Root +
  • "-buo" - Future Passive Adverbial Participle
  • "-tuo" - Present Passive Adverbial Participle
  • "-luo" - Past Passive Adverbial Participle

EXAMPLES:

  • Masažit - to massage
  • Masaži- + ending
  • Masažibuo on slušal muzik - Preparing to be massaged, he listened to music.
  • Masažituo on slušal muzik - While being massaged, he listened to music.
  • Masažiluo on slušal muzik - Having been massaged, he listened to music.

OTHER VERBS

BUT or BIT - TO BE

PRESENT TENSE (Simple)

  • Ja jes / je - I am
  • Ti jes / je - You are (Old English = "Thou art")
  • On jes / je - He is
  • Ona jes / je - She is
  • Ono jes / je - It is
  • Mi jes / je / sou - We are
  • Vi jes / je / sou - You are
  • Oni jes / je / sou - They are

PRESENT TENSE (Conjugated)

  • Ja jesem - I am
  • Ti jeseš - You are (Old English = "Thou art")
  • On jese - He is
  • Ona jese - She is
  • Ono jese - It is
  • Mi jeseme - We are
  • Vi jesete - You are
  • Oni sou - or: jesjut - They are
(NOTE: The verb TO BE is the only irregular verb in Slovioski; and its third person plural verb form is the only one with three optional forms)

FUTURE TENSE

  • Ja budem - I will be
  • Ti budeš - You will be (Old English = "Thou shalt")
  • On bude - He will be
  • Ona bude - She will be
  • Ono bude - It will be
  • Mi budeme - We will be
  • Vi budete - You will be
  • Oni budjut - They will be

IMAT - TO HAVE

PRESENT TENSE

  • Ja imam - I have
  • Ti imaš - You are (Old English = "Thou hast")
  • On ima - He has
  • Ona ima - She has
  • Ono ima - It has
  • Mi imame - We have
  • Vi imate - You have
  • Oni imajut - They have


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